Thank you all so much.

When you put an ice pack on a strained or injured area (muscle tissue or subdermal). Unless ofcourse you bring that squirrel back to its regular non hibernating state body temperature. Therefore nerve cells with a larger axon diameter due to Myelin sheath wrapping, have higher velocity conductance than those that have less. Literally.Space shuttleSolar and Nuclear: Why can’t we all just get along?colonising moonDr Syntax That’s why its crucial we keep our body temperatures at around 37 C (humans). Stuff like water treatment, public roads, public transportation services, sewage…All costs born outside of the simple buyer and seller relationship and usually subsidized through general taxation. Thank you all so much. At lower temperatures, energy will flow from an energetic condition to less energetic condition, therefore you have less energy to carry out the amount of work that needs to be carried out.Another reason…We have to remember that the three states, depolarized, polarized, and hyperpolarized states of the nerve cell which allow the action potential to be self-propagated and fired through the cell. Thus, they are forced to either live in subnivean environment under the snow where the temperature doesn’t drop below -5 C and/or have to enter a state of hibernation.

So when you buy a 4$ dog shite you do not pay the 1 million $ ($1,000,004) of damages the dog shite causes to society. The key here is not that they are polluting, but that they are polluting other peoples’ land, air and water.The air and water are technically common property to all citizens, but the factory is polluting more than the factory owner’s rightful share of that air and water. Example: Pollution.Banter illustration: Factory X manufactures novelty plastic dog shite which it sells for 4$ (and is a best seller online while children starve in other countries but they dont count since in the “law” of supply and demand, demand only counts if you have money).Lets say the manufacturing of 1000 dog shite unit produces pollution which causes 2000 hospitalization for respiratory failure, 200 death which cost a fortune in caskets, 500 cancer cases which cost scans, outrageous fortunes in cheomtherapy and devastates wetlands that cost millions of taxpayer money to clean out, so lets say a total external cost of 1000 million dollars. These animals body temperature drops significantly, and their heart rate and breathing rate goes to as low as nearly 2 breaths and 5 heart beats per minute. No bears do not hibernate, there body temperature does not drop significantly and there heart rate doesn’t change significantly, therefore its not considered hibernation. The people who get sick from breathing the air are most likely breathing it on their own land, meaning that the air over their own land has been stolen from them outright. If the temperature is lowered, this allows for more dissipation of electrochemical energy during signaling, which results in slower conductance.

We pay at the pump than pay a hidden significant amount through taxes to secure the extraction, transportation, and refining of that fuel before it gets to the pump. Another example is huge amount of Western Defense dollars spent to provide security for oil production around the world. In nerve cells depolarization and
polarization of the ion channels is slowed by lower temperature. Did you know that body temperature is equally significant for neural networks? This is because temperature also regulates conduction velocity of our neurons. If you add more energy to an energy dependent system it will increase the rate of work. This alleviates some of the pain by reducing the rate of conductance by those neurons that are firing signals to the brain to produce a pain sensation. Now if an ethical producer said hey Im going to make a factory that neutralizes pollution but the cost will be such that a dog shite unit cost 6$, the true cost for society could be 6$ instead of 1,000,004$, but since the unscrupulous other producers will sell theirs for 4$ the valiant producer goes out of business, and the other producers realize that under a monetary system(or our current economic system) it is advantageous to shovel out as much of the external cost as possible on to the public and the environment to be more competitive. Originally Posted by Curiosity The effect of temperature on conduction velocity Its like any other electrical circuit, conduction will be slowed by lower temperatures and increased by higher temperatures.

Systemic risk raised by banking/financial practices is another example.To put it simple, market mechanisms do not include social costs (/social benefits) therefore the market outcome is not the best possible. At lower temperatures, the electrochemical gradient will take longer to initiate depolarization due to less thermal energy and this will also cause an extended period of hyperpolarization after the signal has been fired from node to node. Hibernation is also a processes, it takes several steps to enter hibernation successfully. Also, remember that the axon is wrapped with layers of Myelin. Another one may be health costs. These costs are the external costs (benefits).There are a few possible ways to include these costs in the market mechanism (eg by taxation, permits, etc) but note that it’s not always possible to cost them precisely. Raccoons, Badgers, Opossums do not hibernate either like bears.Smaller organisms, due to their body size cannot produce enough thermal insulation (for obvious reasons, because their fur cannot grow exceedingly where it would prohibit their movement). Lol, and since we both have aspirations in the field of Neuroscience. Originally Posted by Curiosity Thanks for responding Andres I had an extended response question on my biology exam about torpor in hummingbirds, so I was in a way, checking to make sure my answer made sense.

Instead of paying a fine to the government, the factory owner really should be forced to pay the people whom he has robbed the value of what he has stolen from them. Can we display the Date and Time captured by theSmartphone Camera Device on the image with a specific color?Thanks & Regards,Prashant S Akerkar Bears and larger animals will go into deep prolonged sleep in order to avoid higher metabolism requiring activities during the winter. The effect of temperature on conduction velocity Note also, by creating more markets to handle already existed market inefficiencies you can lead the economy to produce more negative externalities (external costs).Also, note that in order to quantify social costs (in order to optimize the market outcome) you must presuppose a social welfare function (which is rather difficult or even impossible to be estimated theoretically and empirically).Btw, the most notated economics paper is the “Coase theroem”, which tries to prove that optimized solutions may be found even if negative externalities exist. (btw, Coase won economics nobel prize in 1991 mainly due to this paper). We also defer payment on many things to later generations.

You could wake up a bear that’s in a prolonged sleep state, however you won’t be able to wake up a squirrel that’s in hibernation. Originally Posted by Curiosity By what mechanism does that work though? Temperature regulation or neural signaling conduction? Polution was a great example. If you observe a relative energy requirement chart, smaller animals require more energy than larger animals, and that smaller animals also have to use more energy for thermoregulation than larger organisms. Is that why you tend to see smaller organisms hibernating, as opposed to larger ones?

I also believe I read that bears do not technically hibernate. It’s often explained by the “external” economies which lead to increasing returns to scale. www.autostamper.usAuto stamp app for capturing Date, Time, Signature, Logoon the image captured by the Smartphone Camera Device.Thanks & Regards,Prashant S Akerkar Related Discussions:Ken Fabos off topicHere’s one for youroot of thoughtschi square calculationsimple question: is there a single proof of a singularity in nature?These are really cool. Eg a tobacco or alcohol industry does not calculate consumer’s future health problems. some non technical videos that are based on (negative) externalities:The Price of Gas – YouTubeThe Story of Electronics (2010) – YouTubeThe High Price of Materialism – YouTubeOn the other side, a nice example of an external benefit that I forgot to mention is the so called “Solow residual” (which is is that part of economic growth not explicable by measurable changes in the capital and labour amounts). Would you possibly readily elaborate the following?There are external costs when the price set by buyers and sellers of goods fails to include some costs, to anyone, that result from the production and use of the goods.”). It can also apply to the costs of infrastructure. Originally Posted by AndresKiani Smaller organisms, due to their body size cannot produce enough thermal insulation (for obvious reasons, because their fur cannot grow exceedingly where it would prohibit their movement). So the rationale for smaller animals to hibernate, is to reduce their body temperature and save energy on thermoregulation, and to also reduce their metabolism and reduce some of the large energy requirement they have, being small animals? By what mechanism does that work though? Thanks for responding Andres I had an extended response question on my biology exam about torpor in hummingbirds, so I was in a way, checking to make sure my answer made sense.

This increases signal conductance by maintaining the full electrochemical energy within the axon, not allowing it the dissipate to the surrounding. For the most part, “externality” and “theft” are the same thing. Related Discussions:Why do we sleep?Human Hibernation?How do fish get here?Is everyone gone into hibernation?Deep-Space travelling, is it even possible?How do you guys think of this news.Python mating seasonHuman hybernationWhat is the biological reason behind wanting to stay in bed?friction and hearing External costs (or benefits) also known as externalities, are costs (or benefits) that are not taken into account by the market mechanism. These Great answers. yes, the bad thing is that people are breathing “their own air” and this private propery is polluted by mr x, its not like we live in an ecosystem we rely on for survival. you have been caught red handed kojax, you are illegitematly breathing oxygen that is the property of the owners of the air around the trees that capitalisticlally generated the for profit oxygen which is their own private-property-meme air, you are stealing the air that has been malevolently stolen by the wind without a duly signed contract by the air property owner…. and be sure to pay royalties on the sunlight owned by the crazy lady in spain that claims the sun belongs to her. (just teasing) A boring passageThanks in advance

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